Injury of peripheral nerves is a serous health concern. Alone in Europe and the USA, more than 100.000 patients require neurosurgical interventions annually and, even after optimal surgical repair, many of these patients experience lifelong disabilities and reduced quality of life. Traditionally, the compromised recovery of function is attributed to aberrations in the regenerated nerve. Recent evidence, however, suggests that plasticity in the central nervous system may essentially influence the outcome of peripheral nerve injury. A major goal of our laboratory is to understand how sensorimotor circuitries respond to injury and which of these responses favour or impede recovery of function. We use (1) established experimental paradigms like transection and surgical repair of the facial, femoral or sciatic nerve, (2) video-based motion analyses to assess functional outcomes, and (3) electrophysiology, tracing and imaging methods, and quantitative histological analyses to monitor central nervous system reactions and assess aberrations in the regenerated nerve and target reinnervation.