Around one in 3,300 children in Germany is born with Mucoviscidosis. A characteristic of this illness is that one channel albumen on the cell surface is disturbed by mutations. Thus, the amount of water of different secretions in the body is reduced which creates a tough mucus. As a consequence, inner organs malfunction. Moreover, the mucus blocks the airways. Thus, the self regulatory function of the lung is disturbed, the mucus is colonized by bacteria and chronic infections follow. The lung is so significantly damaged that patients often die or need to have a lung transplant. The average life expectancy of a patient today is around 40 years. This is due to medical progress. Permanent treatment with inhaled antibiotics play a considerable part in this. The treatment can’t avoid the colonization by bacteria completely but it can keep it in check for a longer period of time. However, the bacteria defend themselves with a development of resistance and with the growth of so-called biofilms underneath the layer of mucus, which mostly block off the bacteria in the lower rows like a protective shield.
A complex way to the Pathogens
Scientists of the Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany succeeded in developing a much more efficient method to treat the airway infections which are often lethal. Crucial are nanoparticles that transport the antibiotics more efficiently to their destination. “Typically, the drugs are applied by inhalation in the body. Then they make a complicated way through the body to the pathogens and many of them don’t make it to their destination,” states Prof. Dr Dagmar Fischer of the chair for Pharmaceutical Technology at the University of Jena, who supervised the project together with her colleague Prof. Dr Mathias Pletz, a pulmonologist and infectious diseases physician, from the Center for Infectious Diseases and Infection Control at the Jena University Hospital. The project was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. First of all, the active particles need to have a certain size to be able to reach the deeper airways and not to bounce off somewhere else before. Ultimately, they have to penetrate the thick layer of mucus on the airways as well as the lower layers of the bacteria biofilm.